Explore The Human Body

Human Body Organ System.

In our body there is a group of organs that perform a particular system function alone or group. There are various organ systems of human body – skeletal system, muscle system, respiratory system, digestive system, nervous  and endocrine system, circulatory system, excretory system, and  reproductive system.

These organs have different functions but each of them are interconnected to each other and depend on each other for their work such as regulating the production of hormones in the body, protecting the body and providing mobility, controlling body temperature etc.

Skeletal System.

Skeletal system is the system of bones, associated cartilages and joints of the human body. Adult human body has 206 bones. Apart from bones, skeletons also contain cartilage and ligaments.

Cartilages are dense connective tissues made of protein fiber and provide a smooth surface for bone mobility on the joints. Ligament is a band of fibrous connective tissue that combines bones together and retains them in their place. However, joint is an important component of human skeleton as it makes human skeleton dynamic. The joint can be between “two or more bones, “bones and cartilage” and “cartilage and cartilage.”

Muscular System.

Muscular system is made up of about 650 muscles that help the body with movement, flow and some other functions. It also helps in performing important tasks. There are mainly three types of muscles found in the body, skeletal muscles that help to move the body, soft muscles that are found in various parts of the body like lungs, liver etc and heart muscles which are found in the heart and work to pump the blood.

Respiratory System.

The method of release of energy from food is called respiration. 

Food + Oxygen ——-> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

In the respiratory process, energy is released within the cells of the body. Moreover, respiration is essential for life as it provides energy to perform all the processes that are essential for keeping organisms alive.

Digestive System.

The human digestive system is a complex process in which large biological elements are broken into small particles that body uses as fuel. Breaking nutrients into small particles requires coordination of many enzymes emanating from special cells present in the mouth, stomach, intestines and liver. The order of various organs of the human digestive system is as follows: mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine. Apart from these the human digestive system are associated with some glands- salivary glands, liver and pancreas.

Enzymes play an important role in the digestive process. The process of digestion begins in the mouth and ends in the small intestine. There is no digestive function in the large intestine. The bacteria present in it produce vitamin B and vitamin K.

Nervous System.

High-grade animals called vertebrates (including humans) have control and coordination through the nervous system as well as the hormone system often called as endocrine system.

The system made up of nerve cells is called the nervous system and its job is to coordinate the activities of our body. Therefore, it helps our body to work together. The nervous system is made up of distinct types of cells called neurons. It is the largest cell in the body. The main organs of the nervous system are the brain, spinal cord and veins. The brain and spinal cord are connected to millions of nerves from all the senses and other organs of our body.

Endocrine System.

A group of endocrine glands producing a variety of endocrine hormones is called endocrine system. Endocrine systems in combination with the nervous system also help in coordinating the activities of our body. The endocrine glands present in our body are: the vertigo, hypothalamus gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thalamus, pancreas, adrenal gland, testis (only in men) and ovaries (only in women).

Hormones produced by endocrine glands act as messengers between our body parts and nervous system.

Cardio vascularity System.

The main circulatory system in humans is the ‘blood circulation system’. The circulatory system is also known as the two circulatory system because it is made up of two loops and the blood passes through the heart twice. The heart is at the centre of this system and divided into two parts – right and left.

In this system, blood carries oxygen, digested food and other chemicals such as hormones and enzymes to other parts of the body. It also flushes out waste or emitter products such as carbon dioxide and urea produced by liver cells.

The human blood circulation system consists of the heart (the organ that pumps and retrieves blood) and the blood vessels or ducts through which blood flows into the body. Blood flows through three types of blood vessels:

(i) Arteries

(ii) Veins and

(iii) Capillaries

The blood vessels of the circulatory system are present in every part of the human body. It is through these that blood reaches all the organs of the body.

Excretory System.

In humans, excretion is performed by an organ system, called the urinary system or excretion system. It consists of the following organs: two seed-shaped bean kidneys that live at the bottom and rear of the middle part of the stomach, two emitter tubes or urethra that are connected to both kidneys, a bladder in which the urethra opens and a fleshy tube called the urethra that originates from the bladder. At the end of the urethra is the urinary tract. In addition, there are two main processes of emission – filtration and reabsorption. Both kidneys not only flush out nitrogenous wastes but also regulate the amount of water in the body (osmosis regulation- osmoregulation) and maintain the balance of minerals in the blood. Nephron is the structural and functional part of the kidney.

Reproductive System.

The origin of new organisms from the organisms of the same species is called reproduction. It is essential for the survival of species on earth. In reproduction, the organism is born with the basic qualities of its parents. Organisms have two main methods of reproduction:

(a) Asexual reproduction

(b) Sexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction: Giving birth to a new organism without the cooperation of sexual cells or gametes by a single parent. Example: Binary fission in Amoeba, complex spore sown in hydra, formation of spores in rhizopus fungus, regeneration in planaria (flarworm), fragmentation in spirogyra, vegetation expansion in flowering plants (e.g. rose plant).

Sexual reproduction: To give birth to a new organism by two organisms, parents, using their sexual cells or gametes. Two organisms involved in sexual reproduction are male and female.